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Storage Behaviour  1000 Seed Weight  Oil Content  Protein Content  Seed Dispersal  Literature Cited

APG Order: Sapindales
Genus: Aesculus
Species Epithet: hippocastanum
Species Author: L.
Common Name: horsechestnut
Life Form: phan.

Storage Behaviour

Storage Behaviour: Recalcitrant
Storage Conditions: MCS= 49% Viability can be maintained for 6 months in polyethene bags at 3C with moist seeds (Rudolf, 1974a); viability is reduced from initial germination of 85% to 60% and 25% following 13 months and 15 months, respectively, in sealed packages with fresh seeds without added moisture at -2C (Rudolf, 1974a); 50-100% excised embryonic axes survive desiccation to 9.9% mc (drying overnight under a stream of air), and subsequent overnight storage in liquid nitrogen (Pence, 1990); EMCS= 69%, ELSMC= 20%, 60% of excised embryos survive desiccation to about 12% mc, most excised embryos dried to 20-15% mc also survive overnight in liquid nitrogen (Pence, 1992); MCS= 50%, EMCS= 65%, 77% germinate on desiccation to 30% mc if seeds harvested at 145 days after anthesis (Tompsett & Pritchard, 1993); whole seed harvest MC=48-51 %, embryonic axis =65 %, percentage germination increased as seeds dried down to 32-36 % MC, but viability reduced on further drying (Tompsett and Pritchard, 1998).

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1000 Seed Weight

Average 1000 Seed Weight(g): 12976
Details of Component Seed Weights:
  1. 12000; (Bouman et al., 2000); Seed; Seed mc not stated, but weight is likely to refer to air-dry seed.
  2. 12000.0; (Cromarty et al., 1982); Seed; Mid-point of 1000 seed weight range 4000-20000g; seed mc not stated, but weight is likely to refer to air-dry seed.
  3. 9615; (FAO, 1975); Seed; Seed mc not stated, but weight is likely to refer to air-dry seed.
  4. 15625.0; (Forest Service, 1974); Seed; Seed mc not stated, but weight is likely to refer to air-dry seed.
  5. 15641.1162; (Forest Service, 1974); Seed; Seed mc not stated
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Seed Dispersal

  1. Animal; Diaspore is carried intentionally; Method not stated; (Bouman et al., 2000)
  2. Unassisted; Seeds drop to the ground close to or beneath the parent plant; Direct or experimental observation; (Whelan, 1986); Diaspore=seed.
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Oil Content

Average of Oil Content (%): 8.0
Details of Component Oil Contents:
  1. 8.0; (Vaughan, 1970); Entire seed/nut; Dry weight basis
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Protein Content

Average of Protein Content (%): 10.0
Details of Component Protein Contents:
  1. 10.0; (Vaughan, 1970); Entire seed/nut; Moisture content not stated
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Literature Cited
  1. Cromarty, A.S., Ellis, R.H. and Roberts, E.H. 1982. The Design of Seed Storage Facilities for Genetic Conservation. Rome: International Board for Plant Genetic Resources.
  2. FAO. 1975. Forest Tree Seed Directory. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations.
  3. Pence, V.C. 1990. Cryostorage of embryo axes of several large-seeded temperate tree species. Cryobiology, 27:212-218.
  4. Pence, V.C. 1992. Desiccation and the survival of Aesculus, Castanea, and Quercus embryo axes through cryopreservation. Cryobiology, 29:391-399.
  5. Rudolf, P.O. 1974a. Aesculus L. In Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No 450. Washington DC: Forest Service, USDA. pp. 195-200.
  6. Tompsett, P.B. And Pritchard, H.W. 1993. Water status changes during development in relation to the germination and desiccation tolerance of Aesculus hippocastanum L. Seeds. Annals of Botany, 71;107-116.
  7. Forest Service. 1974. Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook Number 450. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
  8. Tompsett, P.B. and Pritchard, H.W. 1998. The effect of chilling and moisture status on the germination, desiccation tolerance and longevity of Aesculus hippocastanum L. seed. Annals of Botany, 82:249-261.
  9. Whelan, R.J. 1986. Seed dispersal in relation to fire. In: Seed Dispersal (Ed. by D.R. Murray), pp. 237-271. Academic Press, Australia.
  10. Vaughan, J.G. 1970. The Structure and Utilisation of Oil Seeds. Chapman and Hall Ltd., London.
  11. Bouman, F., Boeswinkel, D., Bregman, R., Devente, N. and Oostermeijer, G. 2000. Verspreiding van Zaden. KNNV Uitgeverij, Utrecht.

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