Seed Information Database

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Storage Behaviour  1000 Seed Weight  Oil Content  Protein Content  Seed Dispersal  Germination  Literature Cited

APG Clade: EUDICOTS - CORE EUDICOTS - ASTERIDS - EUASTERIDS I
APG Order: Solanales
APG Family: SOLANACEAE
Kew Family: SOLANACEAE
Genus: Datura
Species Epithet: stramonium
Species Author: L.
Life Form: ther.


Storage Behaviour

Storage Behaviour: Orthodox
Storage Conditions: Seeds are safely stored in liquid nitrogen (Iriondo et al., 1992); long-term storage under IPGRI preferred conditions at RBG Kew, WP. Oldest collection 19 years; average germination change 96.5 to 87.8%, mean storage period 13 years, 4 collections

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1000 Seed Weight

Average 1000 Seed Weight(g): 8.1
Details of Component Seed Weights:
  1. 8.0; (Felfoldi, 1980); Seed; Seed mc not stated, but weight is likely to refer to air-dry seed.
  2. 32.6; (Felfoldi, 1980); Seed; Seed mc not stated, but weight is likely to refer to air-dry seed.
  3. 6.3; (Earle & Jones, 1962); Seed; Seed mc not stated, but weight is likely to refer to air-dry seed.
  4. 7.8; (Earle & Jones, 1962); Seed; Seed mc not stated, but weight is likely to refer to air-dry seed.
  5. 14.0; (Barclay & Earle, 1974); Seed; Seed mc not stated, but weight is likely to refer to air-dry seed.
  6. 6.744; (Mazer, 1989); Seed
  7. 5.0696; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  8. 5.0948; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  9. 5.158; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  10. 5.2648; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  11. 5.2816; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  12. 5.8504; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  13. 5.868; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  14. 6.0516; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  15. 6.2156; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  16. 6.2428; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  17. 6.2728; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  18. 6.8624; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  19. 6.9984; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  20. 7.0724; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  21. 7.1484; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  22. 7.1588; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  23. 7.4764; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  24. 7.5888; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  25. 7.5944; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  26. 7.5984; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  27. 8.33; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  28. 8.3492; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  29. 8.5; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  30. 8.6108; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  31. 10.7728; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  32. 14.9332; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  33. 5.6; (Baker Seed Herbarium, California); Seed; Seed mc not stated, but weight is likely to refer to air-dry seed.
  34. 6.744; (Mazer, 1989); Diaspore; seed plus associated protective structure
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Seed Dispersal

  1. Animal; Diaspore is eaten intentionally; Direct or experimental observation; (Vazquez & Givnish, 1998); Vertebrates (unspecified).; Diaspore=fruit. Fruits are fleshy.
  2. Wind; Diaspore is propelled by action of wind on the plant structure; Direct or experimental observation; (Ridley, 1930); Diaspore=seed.
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Germination

  1. 100 % germination (seeds sown: 10); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 8/16; 25/10C (Therm 8/16); 14 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  2. 92 % germination (seeds sown: 50); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 8/16; 20C; 35 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  3. 88 % germination (seeds sown: 49); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 8/16; 25C; 35 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  4. 71 % germination (seeds sown: 49); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 8/16; 30C; 35 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  5. 84 % germination (seeds sown: 50); pre-sowing treatments: sterilisation (immersed seeds in 10% domestos for 5 minutes); germination medium: 1% agar with 250mg/l Gibberellic acid (GA3); germination conditions: light 8/16; 35/20C (Therm 8/16); 56 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  6. 84 % germination (seeds sown: 50); pre-sowing treatments: sterilisation (immersed seeds in 10% domestos for 5 minutes); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 8/16; 35/20C (Therm 8/16); 56 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  7. 90 % germination (seeds sown: 42); pre-sowing treatments: surgical (seed coat partially removed with scalpel. seed coat chipped); germination medium: 1% agar with 250mg/l Gibberellic acid (GA3); germination conditions: light 12/12; 33/19C (Therm 12/12); (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  8. 96 % germination (seeds sown: 50); germination medium: 1% agar with 250mg/l Gibberellic acid (GA3); germination conditions: light 12/12; 31C; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  9. 85 % germination (seeds sown: 100); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 12/12; 31C; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  10. 100 % germination (seeds sown: 25); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 12/12; 26/11C (Therm 12/12); (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  11. 92 % germination (seeds sown: 50); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 12/12; 33/19C (Therm 12/12); (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  12. 90 % germination (seeds sown: 100); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 12/12; 31C; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  13. 90 % germination (seeds sown: 20); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 12/12; 33/19C (Therm 12/12); (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  14. 50 % germination (seeds sown: 50); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 12/12; 31C; 35 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  15. 56 % germination (seeds sown: 25); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 8/16; 35/20C (Therm 8/16); 42 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  16. 84 % germination (seeds sown: 50); pre-sowing treatments: 1. sterilisation (seed sterilised by immersion in 10% domestos for 10 mins); 2. surgical (seed coat partially removed. chipped both radicle tip and cotyledon ends of seed); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 8/16; 35/20C (Therm 8/16); 56 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  17. 80 % germination (seeds sown: 50); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 8/16; 25C; 56 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  18. 100 % germination (seeds sown: 50); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 8/16; 30C; 14 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  19. 50 % germination (seeds sown: 10); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 8/16; 20C; 49 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  20. 90 % germination (seeds sown: 10); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 8/16; 25C; 49 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  21. 100 % germination (seeds sown: 10); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 12/12; 26C; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  22. 60 % germination (seeds sown: 20); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 8/16; 20C; 42 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  23. 55 % germination (seeds sown: 20); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 8/16; 25C; 42 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  24. 94 % germination (seeds sown: 17); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 8/16; 30C; 28 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  25. 54 % germination (seeds sown: 50); pre-sowing treatments: surgical (seed coat partially removed with scalpel. seed coat chipped); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 12/12; 33/19C (Therm 12/12); 56 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  26. 100 % germination (seeds sown: 19); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 8/16; 35/20C (Therm 8/16); 42 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  27. 62 % germination (seeds sown: 50); germination medium: 1% agar with 250mg/l Gibberellic acid (GA3); germination conditions: light 12/12; 33/19C (Therm 12/12); 42 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  28. 66 % germination (seeds sown: 50); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 12/12; 33/19C (Therm 12/12); 42 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  29. 96 % germination (seeds sown: 50); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 12/12; 26C; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  30. 96 % germination (seeds sown: 50); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 12/12; 31C; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  31. 98 % germination (seeds sown: 50); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 12/12; 31C; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  32. 84 % germination (seeds sown: 19); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 8/16; 35/20C (Therm 8/16); 70 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
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Oil Content

Average of Oil Content (%): 23.7
Details of Component Oil Contents:
  1. 22.8; (Earle & Jones, 1962); Entire seed/nut; Moisture content not stated
  2. 25.8; (Earle & Jones, 1962); Entire seed/nut; Moisture content not stated
  3. 22.5; (Eckey, 1954); Entire seed/nut; Moisture content not stated; Mid-point of the range 16-29
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Protein Content

Average of Protein Content (%): 18.25
Details of Component Protein Contents:
  1. 18.3; (Earle & Jones, 1962); Entire seed/nut; Moisture content not stated
  2. 18.2; (Earle & Jones, 1962); Entire seed/nut; Moisture content not stated
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Literature Cited
  1. Iriondo, J.M., Perez, C. and Perez-Garcia, F. 1992. Effect of seed storage in liquid nitrogen on germination of several crop and wild species. Seed Science and Technology, 20:165-171.
  2. Felfoldi, E. 1980. Seed Counts (Numbers of Seeds Per Unit Weight). Technical Report Series, 32. Government of Victoria, Department of Agriculture.
  3. Earle, F.R. and Jones, Q. 1962. Analyses of seed samples from 113 plant families. Economic Botany, 16:221-250.
  4. Barclay, A.S. and Earle, F.R. 1974. Chemical analyses of seeds III: oil and protein content of 1253 species. Economic Botany, 28:178-236.
  5. Mazer, S. 1989. Ecological, taxonomic, and life history correlates of seed mass among Indiana dunes Angiosperms. Supplement: species list, untransformed seed mass, seed mass class and ecological data associated with each species. Ecological Monographs, 59.
  6. RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place.
  7. Baker Seed Herbarium, California.
  8. Ridley, H.N. 1930. The Dispersal of Plants Throughout the World. William Clowes and Sons Ltd., London.
  9. Eckey, E.W. 1954. Vegetable fats and oils. American Chemical Society Monograph Series no. 123. Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York.
  10. Vazquez, J.A. and Givnish, T.J. 1998. Altitudinal gradients in tropical forest composition, structure, and diversity in the Sierra de Manantlan. Journal of Ecology, 86:999-1020.
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