Seed Information Database

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Storage Behaviour  1000 Seed Weight  Oil Content  Protein Content  Germination  Morphology  Literature Cited

APG Clade: EUDICOTS - CORE EUDICOTS - ROSIDS - EUROSIDS I
APG Order: Malpighiales
APG Family: EUPHORBIACEAE
Kew Family: EUPHORBIACEAE
Genus: Ricinus
Species Epithet: communis
Species Author: L.
Synonymns: Ricinus communis Nichols var. zanzibarensis; Ricinus communis Nichols. var. gibsonii; Ricinus commun
Common Name: castor bean
Life Form: nanophan. or phan.


Storage Behaviour

Storage Behaviour: Orthodox
Storage Conditions: >90% germination following 21 months storage at room temperature with 5-7% mc (Lago et al., 1979); seeds not damaged from exposure to liquid nitrogen (Stanwood & Bass, 1981; p50= 13.3 years for seeds stored under open storagein a temperate climate (Priestley, 1986)

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1000 Seed Weight

Average 1000 Seed Weight(g): 295.6
Details of Component Seed Weights:
  1. 334.6564; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  2. 121.93; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  3. 456.0496; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  4. 130.7316; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  5. 224.8916; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  6. 521.936; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  7. 229.9332; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  8. 520.7264; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  9. 180.0984; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  10. 125.5844; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  11. 450.0; (Cromarty et al., 1982); Seed; Mid-point of 1000 seed weight range 200-700g; seed mc not stated, but weight is likely to refer to air-dry seed.
  12. 329.3; (Felfoldi, 1980); Seed; Seed mc not stated, but weight is likely to refer to air-dry seed.
  13. 120.0; (Earle & Jones, 1962); Seed excluding seed-coat; Weight refers to seed with 28 % of its outer tissues removed; seed mc not stated, but weight is likely to refer to air-dry seed.
  14. 246.0; (Jones & Earle, 1966); Seed; Seed mc not stated, but weight is likely to refer to air-dry seed.
  15. 470.0; (Jones & Earle, 1966); Seed; Seed mc not stated, but weight is likely to refer to air-dry seed.
  16. 730.0; (Jones & Earle, 1966); Seed; Seed mc not stated, but weight is likely to refer to air-dry seed.
  17. 306.0; (Jones & Earle, 1966); Seed excluding seed-coat; Weight refers to seed with 27 % of its outer tissues removed; seed mc not stated, but weight is likely to refer to air-dry seed.
  18. 291.418; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  19. 198.88; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  20. 230.0695238; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  21. 164.65; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  22. 262.2428; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  23. 335.9324; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  24. 227.0696; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  25. 255.84; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  26. 173.4692; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  27. 157.72; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  28. 465.3992; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  29. 207.0754717; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  30. 400.1219512; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
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Germination

  1. 75 % germination (seeds sown: 20); pre-sowing treatments: surgical (seed coat partially removed with scalpel. seed coat chipped); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 12/12; 26C; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  2. 100 % germination (seeds sown: 19); germination medium: moist sand; germination conditions: light 8/16; 25C; 49 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  3. 90 % germination (seeds sown: 20); pre-sowing treatments: sterilisation (immersed seeds in 10% domestos for 5 minutes); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 12/12; 33/19C (Therm 12/12); (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  4. 96 % germination (seeds sown: 47); pre-sowing treatments: 1. mechanical manipulation (fleshy fruit, aril, or elaiosome removed with scalpel); 2. surgical ( seed coat partially removed with scalpel); germination medium: moist sand; germination conditions: light 8/16; 35/20C (Therm 8/16); 175 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  5. 80 % germination (seeds sown: 20); pre-sowing treatments: 1. sterilisation (seed sterilised by immersion in 10% domestos for 10 mins); 2. surgical (seed coat partially removed with scalpel. seed coat chipped); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 12/12; 26C; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  6. 81 % germination (seeds sown: 26); germination medium: moist sand; germination conditions: light 8/16; 25C; 28 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  7. 90 % germination (seeds sown: 21); pre-sowing treatments: mechanical manipulation (fleshy fruit, aril, or elaiosome removed by hand. arils removed); post-sowing treatments: surgical (seed coat partially removed with scalpel on day 196); germination medium: moist sand; germination conditions: light 8/16; 35/20c (therm 8/16); 112 days; light 8/16; 25/15c (therm 8/16); 250 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  8. 89 % germination (seeds sown: 19); pre-sowing treatments: 1. sterilisation (immersed seeds in 10% domestos for 5 minutes); 2. mechanical manipulation (fleshy fruit, aril, or elaiosome removed. arils removed); germination medium: moist sand; germination conditions: light 8/16; 35/20C (Therm 8/16); 56 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  9. 85 % germination (seeds sown: 20); pre-sowing treatments: 1. sterilisation (immersed seeds in 10% domestos for 5 minutes); 2. mechanical manipulation (fleshy fruit, aril, or elaiosome removed. arils removed); germination medium: moist sand; germination conditions: light 8/16; 35/20C (Therm 8/16); 84 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  10. 100 % germination (seeds sown: 20); pre-sowing treatments: 1. sterilisation (immersed seeds in 10% domestos for 5 minutes); 2. mechanical manipulation (fleshy fruit, aril, or elaiosome removed. arils removed); germination medium: moist sand; germination conditions: light 8/16; 35/20C (Therm 8/16); 91 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  11. 90 % germination (seeds sown: 20); pre-sowing treatments: 1. sterilisation (seed sterilised by immersion in 10% domestos for 10 mins); 2. surgical (seed coat partially removed with scalpel. seed coat chipped); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 12/12; 33/19C (Therm 12/12); 84 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  12. 83 % germination (seeds sown: 48); pre-sowing treatments: mechanical manipulation (fleshy fruit, aril, or elaiosome removed by hand. arils removed); germination medium: moist sand; germination conditions: light 8/16; 25C; 84 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  13. 79 % germination (seeds sown: 28); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 8/16; 25C; 28 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  14. 98 % germination (seeds sown: 46); pre-sowing treatments: 1. mechanical manipulation (fleshy fruit, aril, or elaiosome removed with scalpel); 2. surgical ( seed coat partially removed with scalpel); germination medium: moist sand; germination conditions: light 8/16; 25C; 175 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  15. 68 % germination (seeds sown: 19); pre-sowing treatments: 1. sterilisation (seed sterilised by immersion in 10% domestos for 10 mins); 2. surgical (seed coat partially removed with scalpel. seed coat chipped); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 12/12; 26C; 21 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  16. 53 % germination (seeds sown: 19); pre-sowing treatments: 1. sterilisation (seed sterilised by immersion in 10% domestos for 10 mins); 2. surgical (seed coat partially removed with scalpel. seed coat chipped); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 12/12; 26C; 42 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  17. 100 % germination (seeds sown: 10); pre-sowing treatments: 1. mechanical manipulation (fleshy fruit, aril, or elaiosome removed with scalpel. arils removed); 2. surgical (seed coat partially removed with scalpel); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 8/16; 25C; 42 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  18. 96 % germination (seeds sown: 50); pre-sowing treatments: mechanical manipulation (fleshy fruit, aril, or elaiosome removed by hand. arils removed); germination medium: moist sand; germination conditions: light 8/16; 35/20C (Therm 8/16); 84 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  19. 100 % germination (seeds sown: 25); pre-sowing treatments: mechanical manipulation (fleshy fruit, aril, or elaiosome removed with scalpel); germination medium: moist sand; germination conditions: light 0/24; 25/10C (Therm 8/16); 9 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  20. 100 % germination (seeds sown: 25); pre-sowing treatments: mechanical manipulation (fleshy fruit, aril, or elaiosome removed with scalpel); germination medium: moist sand; germination conditions: light 8/16; 25/10C (Therm 8/16); 16 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  21. 85 % germination (seeds sown: 20); pre-sowing treatments: 1. mechanical manipulation (other covering structure (not seed coat) removed or partially removed. covering structure removed); 2. surgical (seed coat partially removed with scalpel. seed coat chipped); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 12/12; 33/19C (Therm 12/12); (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  22. 84 % germination (seeds sown: 25); pre-sowing treatments: 1. sterilisation (seed sterilised by immersion in 10% domestos for 10 mins); 2. surgical (seed coat partially removed with scalpel. seed coat chipped); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 12/12; 33/19C (Therm 12/12); (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  23. 95 % germination (seeds sown: 20); pre-sowing treatments: 1. sterilisation (seed sterilised by immersion in 10% domestos for 10 mins); 2. surgical (seed coat partially removed with scalpel. seed coat chipped); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 12/12; 33/19C (Therm 12/12); (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
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Oil Content

Average of Oil Content (%): 52.71
Details of Component Oil Contents:
  1. 46.4; (Jones & Earle, 1966); Entire seed/nut; Moisture content not stated
  2. 67.3; (Jones & Earle, 1966); Entire seed/nut; Moisture content not stated
  3. 49.0; (Jones & Earle, 1966); Entire seed/nut; Moisture content not stated
  4. 50.6; (Jones & Earle, 1966); Entire seed/nut; Moisture content not stated
  5. 65.9; (Earle & Jones, 1962); Entire seed/nut; Moisture content not stated
  6. 47.5; (Eckey, 1954); Entire seed/nut; Dry weight basis; Mid-point of the range 40-55.
  7. 45.0; (Padley et al., 1994); Entire seed/nut; Moisture content not stated; Mid-point of the range 35-55. Typical oil content noted as 44.
  8. 50.0; (Vaughan, 1970); Entire seed/nut; Moisture content not stated
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Protein Content

Average of Protein Content (%): 21.95
Details of Component Protein Contents:
  1. 20.0; (Jones & Earle, 1966); Entire seed/nut; Moisture content not stated
  2. 18.0; (Vaughan, 1970); Entire seed/nut; Moisture content not stated
  3. 25.0; (Jones & Earle, 1966); Entire seed/nut; Moisture content not stated
  4. 20.6; (Jones & Earle, 1966); Entire seed/nut; Moisture content not stated
  5. 21.9; (Jones & Earle, 1966); Entire seed/nut; Moisture content not stated
  6. 26.2; (Earle & Jones, 1962); Entire seed/nut; Moisture content not stated
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Seed Morphology

(RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place; material provided by NCWCD, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.)

Fruit:

Fruit type: coccarium
Diaspore: seed
Mechanical protection of seed: seed coat
Fruit dehiscent: Yes
Remarks on the fruit: indehiscent in modern cultivars

Seed:


Seed size length (mm): 11.8 - 13.7 (13.2 - 15.9)
Seed size width (mm): 8.8 - 10.7
Seed size height (mm): 6.3 - 7.1
Remarks on seed size: length including caruncula in brackets
Seed colour: black mottled brown
Seed shape: oval in outline, dorsiventrally flattened
Sarcotesta: absent
Seed appendages: caruncula
Seed surface: smooth
Raphe: present
Hilum: small
Other specialised structures: none

Internal Morphology:


Seed configuration: anatropous
Embryo type: axial-spatulate
Relative size embryo: small (1/4 minus)
Perisperm present: no
Endosperm ruminate: No
Embryo colour: white

Images:  SS-VV  S-LS  S-CS  

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Literature Cited
  1. Cromarty, A.S., Ellis, R.H. and Roberts, E.H. 1982. The Design of Seed Storage Facilities for Genetic Conservation. Rome: International Board for Plant Genetic Resources.
  2. Lago, A.A., Zink, E., Razera, L.F., Banzatto, N.V. and Filho, A.S. 1979. Dormencia em sementes de tres cultivares de mamona. Bragantia, 38:41-44.
  3. Priestley, D.A. 1986. Seed Aging. Cornell University Press.
  4. Stanwood, P.C. and Bass, L.N. 1981. Seed germplasm preservation using liquid nitrogen. Seed Science and Technology, 9:423-437.
  5. Felfoldi, E. 1980. Seed Counts (Numbers of Seeds Per Unit Weight). Technical Report Series, 32. Government of Victoria, Department of Agriculture.
  6. Earle, F.R. and Jones, Q. 1962. Analyses of seed samples from 113 plant families. Economic Botany, 16:221-250.
  7. Jones, Q. and Earle, F.R. 1966. Chemical analyses of seeds II: oil and protein content of 759 species. Economic Botany, 20:127-155.
  8. RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place.
  9. Eckey, E.W. 1954. Vegetable fats and oils. American Chemical Society Monograph Series no. 123. Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York.
  10. Padley, F.B., Gunstone, F.D. and Harwood, J.L. 1994. Occurrence and characteristics of oils and fats. In: The Lipid Handbook (2nd Edn.). (Ed. by F.D.Gunstone, J.L. Harwood and F.B. Padley), pp. 47-146.
  11. Vaughan, J.G. 1970. The Structure and Utilisation of Oil Seeds. Chapman and Hall Ltd., London.
  12. RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place; material provided by NCWCD, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
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