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Storage Behaviour  1000 Seed Weight  Seed Dispersal  Literature Cited

APG Clade: EUDICOTS - CORE EUDICOTS - ROSIDS - EUROSIDS I
APG Order: Malpighiales
APG Family: EUPHORBIACEAE
Kew Family: EUPHORBIACEAE
Genus: Hevea
Species Epithet: brasiliensis
Species Author: (Willd. ex A.Juss.) Mll.Arg.
Common Name: para rubber
Life Form: phan.


Storage Behaviour

Storage Behaviour: Recalcitrant
Storage Conditions: MCS= 36% (Chin et al., 1981), MCS= 53% (Chin et al., 1984); The fruit is a 3-lobed dehiscent capsule, 3-5cm in diameter, with one seed per carpel. Viability can be maintained for 3 months in moist storage with moist charcoal and sawdust in perforated polythene bag at temperatures between 7C and 10C (Beng, 1976). MCS= 36%, LSMC= 20%, no seeds survive further desiccation to 15% mc, seeds are killed on exposure to -5C for 3-4 hours (Chin et al., 1981). LSMC= 25%, no seeds survive further desiccation to 12% mc, viability can be maintained for 4-5 months with seeds at 30-50% mc stored in perforated polythene bag (Pa & Koen, 1963). EMCS= 76%, no excised embryos survive desiccation to 14.5% mc (Grabe, 1989). EMCS= 54.5%, 50% of excised embryos tolerate desiccation (5 hours in a laminar flow hood at 26-28C) to 13.7% mc when cultured in vitro, 87% of the excised embryos at 16% mc survive 16 hours in liquid nitrogen, of which 69% developed into seedlings (Normah et al., 1986)
Species Distribution: Deciduous trees native to tropical rain forests of the Amazon basin, often in periodically flooded areas, but larger trees are found on the well-drained plateaux. Despite tropical lowland origin, the tree can tolerate low temperatures,

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1000 Seed Weight

Average 1000 Seed Weight(g): 3809
Details of Component Seed Weights:
  1. 3630; (Daws et al., 2005); Seed; Dry weight - seeds were dried for 3 days at 60 degrees
  2. 3000.0; (Cromarty et al., 1982); Seed; Mid-point of 1000 seed weight range 2000-4000g; seed mc not stated, but weight is likely to refer to air-dry seed.
  3. 4347.8; (Felfoldi, 1980); Seed; Seed mc not stated, but weight is likely to refer to air-dry seed.
  4. 4260; (Chin et al., 1984); Seed; Fresh weight
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Seed Dispersal

  1. Water; Floating in freshwater currents; Method not stated; (van der Pijl, 1982)
  2. Unassisted; Seeds drop to the ground close to or beneath the parent plant; Method not stated; (Turner, 2001)
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Literature Cited
  1. Beng, A.B. 1976. Problems of rubber seed storage. In Seed Technology in the Tropics. (Ed. by H.F. Chin, I.C. Enoch and R.M. Raja Harun), pp. 117-122. Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Selangor.
  2. Chin, H.F., Aziz, M., Ang, B.B. and Hamzah, G. 1981. The effect of moisture content and temperature on the ultra structure and viability of seeds of Hevea brasiliensis. Seed Science and Technology, 9:411-422.
  3. Chin, H.F., Hor, Y.L. and Mohd. Lassim, M.B. 1984. Identification of recalcitrant seeds. Seed Science and Technology, 12:429-436.
  4. Cromarty, A.S., Ellis, R.H. and Roberts, E.H. 1982. The Design of Seed Storage Facilities for Genetic Conservation. Rome: International Board for Plant Genetic Resources.
  5. Grabe, D.F. 1989. Report of the seed moisture 1986-1989 working group on recalcitrant seeds. Seed Science and Technology, 17S:87-93.
  6. Normah, M.N., Chin, H.F. and Hor, Y.L. 1986. Desiccation and cryopreservation of embryonic axes of Hevea brasiliensis Muell.- Arg. Pertanika, 9:299-303.
  7. Pa, O.T. and Koen, L.I. 1963. Results on storage test with seeds of Hevea brasiliensis. Menara Perkebunan, 32:183-192.
  8. Felfoldi, E. 1980. Seed Counts (Numbers of Seeds Per Unit Weight). Technical Report Series, 32. Government of Victoria, Department of Agriculture.
  9. Turner, I.M. 2001. The Ecology of Trees in the Tropical Rain Forest. Cambridge Tropical Biology Series. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  10. van der Pijl, L. 1982. Principles of Dispersal in Higher Plants. 3rd Edn. Springer-Verlag, New York.
  11. Daws, M.I., Garwood, N.C. & Pritchard, H.W. 2005. Traits of recalcitrant seeds in a semi-deciduous tropical forest in Panama: some ecological implications. Functional Ecology, 19:874-885.
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