Seed Information Database

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Storage Behaviour  1000 Seed Weight  Oil Content  Protein Content  Seed Dispersal  Germination  Literature Cited

APG Clade: EUDICOTS - CORE EUDICOTS - ASTERIDS - EUASTERIDS II
APG Order: Apiales
APG Family: ARALIACEAE
Kew Family: ARALIACEAE
Genus: Hedera
Species Epithet: helix
Species Author: L.
Life Form: cl. cham. or nanophan. or phan.


Storage Behaviour

Storage Behaviour: Orthodox?
Storage Conditions: 42% germination after 6 months hermetic air-dry storage at 5 C (Grime et al, 1981)

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1000 Seed Weight

Average 1000 Seed Weight(g): 19.7
Details of Component Seed Weights:
  1. 19.5; (Earle & Jones, 1962); Seed; Seed mc not stated, but weight is likely to refer to air-dry seed.
  2. 20.43; (Thompson et al., 1993); Seed
  3. 25.9; (Salisbury, 1942); Seed; Seed mc not stated, but weight is likely to refer to air-dry seed.
  4. 13.87872; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  5. 18.1812; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place); Seed; *Seed weights reported may include minor covering structures
  6. 20.43; (Grime et al., 1981); Germinule; Seed mc not stated, but weight is likely to refer to air-dry seed.
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Seed Dispersal

  1. Animal; Diaspore is eaten intentionally; Method not stated; (Kay, 1992); Birds.; Diaspore=fruit.
  2. Animal; Diaspore is eaten intentionally, seed ingested or regurgitated; Direct evidence; (Debussche & Isenmann, 1994); Bird.; Erithacus rubecula, Sylvia atricapilla
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Germination

  1. 55 % germination (seeds sown: 20); pre-sowing treatments: surgical (seed coat partially removed with scalpel. seed coat chipped); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 12/12; 21C; 42 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
  2. 50 % germination (seeds sown: 10); germination medium: 1% agar; germination conditions: light 12/12; 10C; 56 days; (RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place)
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Oil Content

Average of Oil Content (%): 33.5
Details of Component Oil Contents:
  1. 31.9; (Herrera, 1987); Entire fruit; Dry weight basis
  2. 35.1; (Earle & Jones, 1962); Entire seed/nut; Moisture content not stated
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Protein Content

Average of Protein Content (%): 16.2
Details of Component Protein Contents:
  1. 16.2; (Earle & Jones, 1962); Entire seed/nut; Moisture content not stated
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Literature Cited
  1. Grime, J.P., Mason, G., Curtis, A.A., Rodman, J., Band, S.R., Mowforth, M.A.G., Neal, A.M. and Shaw, S. 1981. A comparative study of germination characteristics in a local flora. Journal of Ecology, 69:1017-1059.
  2. Earle, F.R. and Jones, Q. 1962. Analyses of seed samples from 113 plant families. Economic Botany, 16:221-250.
  3. Thompson, K., Band, S.R. and Hodgson, J.G. 1993. Seed size and shape predict persistence in soil. Functional Ecology, 7:236-241.
  4. Salisbury, E.J. 1942. The Reproductive Capacity of Plants. G. Bell and Sons, London.
  5. RBG Kew, Wakehurst Place.
  6. Kay, Q.O.N. 1992. Edible fruits in a cool climate: the evolution and ecology of endozoochory in the European flora. In: Fruit and Seed Production: Aspects of Development, Environmental Physiology and Ecology (Ed. by C. Marshall and J. Grace). Society for Experimental Biology Seminar Series, 47. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  7. Herrera, C.M. 1987. Vertebrate-dispersed plants of the Iberian peninsula: a study of fruit characteristics. Ecological Monographs, 57:305-331.
  8. Debussche, M. & Isenmann, P. 1994. Bird-Dispersed Seed Rain and Seedling Establishment in Patchy Mediterranean Vegetation. Oikos, 69(3):414-426.
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